|International Society for Horticultural Science|
Horticulture Research International
Bangladesh enjoys generally a sub-tropical monsoon climate. There are three distinct seasons. From November to February a cool temperature (12-28 °C) and no or little precipitation prevails. Summer continues from March to May with a little rainfall, with temperatures as high as 40 °C. The monsoon prevails from June to October having high rainfall, humidity and temperatures from 25-35 °C. The avarage precipitation per year varies among the regions from 1194-3454 mm.
Bangladesh is situated between 20.5°-26.5° N latitude and 88.5°-92.5° E longitude. Except for the hilly regions in the north-east and south-east, some areas of high lands in the north and northwestern part, the country consists of low, flat and fertile land.
Bangladesh is endowed with a soil and climate which favours cultivation of many horticultural crops. More than 90 vegetables, 60 fruits and 25 spices are being grown in the country. Major fruits include mango, banana, papaya, jackfruit, pineapple, jujube, guava, litchi, pummelo, lemon etc. In case of vegetables, potato, tomato, brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower, aroids, pumpkin, bottle gourd, cucumber, pointed gourd, bitter gourd, hyacinth bean and lady's finger are important. Vegetables are grown in summer and winter season. The summer vegetables are mostly indigenous while the majority of winter vegetables are exotic. Major spice crops are chilli, onion, garlic, turmeric and ginger. Some of the popular flowers are rose, tube rose, dahlia, chrysanthemum, marigold, night jasmines and belly. The total cultivated area of horticultural crops is about 0.69 million hectare which covers about 5% of the total cropped area (BBS, 1996). The area and production of fruits in 1995-96 were 181,000 ha and 14.88 million tons respectively. Banana constitutes 42% of the total production of fruits in the country. In 1995-96 the area and production of vegetables were 192,000 ha and 12.44 million tons respectively. But vegetable production including potato and sweet potato was 31.21 million tons from an area of 369,00 hectare. Winter vegetables contribute about 70% of the total vegetable production because of hazard free and lot of HYV of vegetables. The production of spice crops was 4.04 million ton from an area of 144,000 ha.
Nature of Institutes
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), a national research organisation is assigned to conduct research on different aspects of horticultural crops through three research centres, namely, Horticulture Research Centre (HRC), Tuber Crops Research Centre (TCRC) and Spices Research Centre (SRC). HRC was established in 1989 with its headquarter at Joydebpur, Gazipur. HRC is responsible for the improvement of yield and quality of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamentals through research and participation in their development activities. TCRC established at Joydebpur in 1986 has the main thrust to undertake research on potato, sweet potato and aroids for their high yield and better quality. SRC established in 1994 at Bogra has the main objective to improve the production and quality of the spice crops.
Research on different horticultural crops is also supported by some international organisations like AVRDC, UTFANET, COGENT, INIBAB, ADB, JICA, FAO, etc.
Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) is involved in horticultural crop improvement especially on vegetables through radiation on a limited scale.
Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) and Bangabandhu Agriculture University (former IPSA) conduct research on horticultural crops as part of their post graduate degree programme. Both the universities have laboratory facilities on tissue culture, physiology, insect pest and disease management. The Bangladesh Society for Horticultural Sciences established in 1972 is working for the promotion of horticultural sciences.
Organisations / Institutes:
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI)
Bangladesh Agricultural University