|International Society for Horticultural Science|
Horticulture Research International
The main characteristics of Jordan climate reflect the transitional location of the country between the Mediterranean climate in the West; and arid climates in the East and in the South. The prevailing wind is from the north west bringing cold wet air during winter and spring, mild air during summer and autumn from Europe; and from the east and south east bringing cold air during winter and spring and hot dry during summer and autumn from Arabia and India. The yearly average temperature is 20(C and the yearly average precipitation in the country as a whole is 400 mm. The yearly average number of days with rain is 5-45 and with snow it is 0-8. The Jordan Valley which is 400 m below sea level is warm in winter and hot in summer. Depressions of mostly Mediterranean origin start affecting Jordan in mid October or early November and dominate the weather until late April. Jordan thus has a temperate, semi and subtropical climate which is well suited to horticulture for most of the year.
Jordan is located in the eastern Mediterranean between latitudes 29.30( and 32.31( N. Jordan is rather mountainous in the west, north and south, flat in the east with a major valley (Jordan Valley) along the Eastern mountains from north to south. Fertile clay soils occur in the Jordan Valley and in the upland along the Eastern mountains. Shallow, calcareous soils can be found in the upland as well as sandy-loam soils in the southern and eastern southern part of the country.
All aspects of horticulture can be found in Jordan: arboriculture, fruit growing (tropical, subtropical and temperate zones), flower culture, vegetable production in the Jordan Valley (winter-autumn season) and in upland the (spring - summer season).
Distribution of Horticulture
Cultures under plastic house and in the open (vegetables, strawberry, flowers) as well as citrus, banana, grapes, date palm, and low chill pome and stone fruits are concentrated in the Jordan Valley. Fruit, mainly olive, grape, peach, apple and fig is grown in the upland along the eastern mountains and on sand-loam soils in the southern and eastern southern part of the country. Vegetable growing is practiced in all regions. Arboriculture is in the eastern mountains on clay soils. Rainfed rangeland is in the Badia of Jordan.
The two main reseach thrusts are the Ministry of Agriculture and the Universities of Jordan.
Nature of Institutes
Horticultural research nowadays is directed to sustainable and cost-effective growing systems, and is primarily conducted by three groups of institutions:
1. The National Center for Agricultural Research and Transfer of Technology (NCARTT) which belongs to the Ministry of Agriculture.
2. Faculties of Agriculture in the Jordan Universities.
3. Higher Council for Science and Technology; The Royal Scientific Society and ; the Agricultural Marketing Organisation.
Besides, a few private enterprises dealing with various aspects of horticultural commodities do have their own research activities.
Organisations / Institutes:
Ministry of Agriculture
National Center for Agricultural Research and Transfer of Technology (NCARTT)
University of Jordan
Jordan University for Science and Technology (JUST)
Al-Balqa' Applied University
Jerash Private University