ISHS


HRIDIR Home

FAQ

Search
 
International Society for Horticultural Science

Horticulture Research International

Korea

General info
For questions and/or remarks regarding the content of these pages, feel free to contact the respective ISHS Council representatives who not only represent their country on ISHS Council but who are also invited to maintain the information included in the ISHS HRI Directory pages. For details on how to update your own details we refer to the FAQ pages on this site.

Climate
Korea enjoys four seasons and a variety of different weather types. Spring and autumn are rather short, but very pleasant with crisp weather and many days of sunshine. Located in the East Asian monsoon belt, the Peninsula has hot and humid summers, with the main rainfall occurring during the monsoon season that usually begins at the end of June. Winter is cold and dry, with occasional snow, although spells of cold weather normally alternate with days of warmer weather.

Geography
The Korean Peninsula extends southward from the northeast part of the Asian continent. The Peninsula is currently divided into the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) in the north, and the Republic of Korea (ROK) in the south. To the west of the Peninsula lies the Yellow Sea, with China on the other side. Japan lies across the East Sea, and the Pacific Ocean lies to the south. The country has a varied terrain, with about 70 percent being mountainous, particularly on the East coast. The western and southern coasts are deeply indented, and there are more than 3000 islands and harbors. The major rivers on the peninsula include the Amnok-gang River (Yalu, 790 km) and Tuman-gang River (Tumen, 521 km) in the north and the Nakdong-gang River (525 km) and the Han-gang River (514 km) in the south. The highest mountain on the Peninsula is Mt. Paektu-san (2744 m) in the north; Mt. Halla-san (1950 m) on Cheju Island and Mt. Sorak-san (1708 m) are two of the more well known mountains in the south.

Horticulture
Production of Kimchi vegetables (salted and fermented leafy and root vegetables with spices) is the first priority of the vegetable industry. Thus, about 60% of the total vegetable cultivation area is occupied by the commodities which are major component of Kimchi; Chinese cabbage, radish, hot pepper, garlic, and Welsh onion. Watermelon and onion are other important vegetable crops. Fruit production is mostly concentrated on five major fruits; apples, Mandarin oranges, table grapes, persimmons, and Asian pears.

Development of technology for off-season production has traditionally been an important goal in many horticultural crops, to have a year-round supply and to help farmers increase income. Research and breeding objectives were recently modified to strengthen the importance of horticultural products on the local markets, to improve the quality, and to reduce the production cost. Biotechnology is one of the recent disciplines which is expected to contribute significantly to the achievement of the research goals and thus attracts a large amount of research fund.
Vegetables: Improvement of framing and covering materials, environment control measures, seedling growing systems, and cultural practices are urgent issues for increasing productivity and improving quality of vegetables under protected structures. Development of technology packages for mechanized farming and processing is strongly needed in crops competitive after the opening of free international trade. Post-harvest handling and processing techniques are also regarded to require a strong support. Utilization of meristem cultures to produce virus-free stock plants is practiced in crops such as potato, strawberry, and garlic.
Fruit trees: Cultural practices and post-harvest handling are intensively studied to improve the quality of apple and pear. Development of dwarf rootstocks and new training methods are rigorously experimented as a major means to achieve a rapid return of the investment to open the orchards and to reduce labor cost in many important fruit trees. Nutritional studies including leaf diagnosis techniques and counter-measures to deficient and excessive mineral elements also attract attention among fruit researchers.
Ornamental crops: Breeding of Hibiscus, the national flower, for aphids resistance with more diversities in floral morphology is a priority concerns. Tissue culture for virus free stock production and/or rapid propagation is widely applied. Evaluation and breeding of the Korean native turf as a suitable lawn grass is an important research subject. Modernization of crop management under the structures is new area of importance in view of the future environments of production and marketing. Flower breeding has recently launched and some promising cultivars are now being available.
Plastic film house is widely used for vegetable production in the cold seasons by forcing culture. In 1998, 80,000 ha or 23% of the total vegetable production area was cultivated for vegetable production in protected structures. Vegetable production under rain shelter shows a trend of rapid increase.
Fruit trees are grown in an acreage of 175,708 ha in 1998. In terms of acreage as well as production amount, apples are the most important. Mandarin orange, peaches, persimmons, grapes, and Asian pears follow. Oranges are the major cash fruit crop in ROK and the production is mostly confined to southern Cheju Island. Persimmon and kiwi production is concentrated in the southern coastal areas because of the warm weather, while other crops are more evenly distributed throughout the country. Recently, kiwi fruit and plum have shown a rapid increase. Acreage for flower and ornamental plant production has rapidly increased; 3500 ha in 1990 to 4,789 ha in 1998. Much of the areas is occupied by glasshouses or plastic film houses.

Distribution of Horticulture
Plastic film house is widely used for vegetable production in the cold seasons by forcing culture. In 1998, 80,000 ha or 23% of the total vegetable production area was cultivated for vegetable production in protected structures. Vegetable production under rain shelter shows a trend of rapid increase.

Fruit trees are grown in an acreage of 175,708 ha in 1998. In terms of acreage as well as production amount, apples are the most important. Mandarin orange, peaches, persimmons, grapes, and Asian pears follow. Oranges are the major cash fruit crop in ROK and the production is mostly confined to southern Cheju Island. Persimmon and kiwi production is concentrated in the southern coastal areas because of the warm weather, while other crops are more evenly distributed throughout the country. Recently, kiwi fruit and plum have shown a rapid increase. Acreage for flower and ornamental plant production has rapidly increased; 3500 ha in 1990 to 4,789 ha in 1998. Much of the areas is occupied by glasshouses or plastic film houses.

Research Thrusts
The Rural Development Administration (RDA) has the responsibility of research and extension service to support the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in policy making and implementation in the field of agriculture. // Nature of Institutes in Country//
The history of the Rural Development Administration goes back to 1905 and it now has 11 research institutes; nine of them are specialized in different Disciplines or Crop Commodity groups and 1 agriculture college. The National Horticultural Research Institute (NHRI) in Suwon is the prime coordinating institute in this field. NHRI was established in 1949 as an independent public institute and later merged into the RDA system. The main office is located in Suwon at 2 different sites, one at Imok-dong and the other at Tap-dong. It maintains a very close relationship with three branch institute : the first one in Cheju is charged in research in Citrus trees, the second one in Naju specialized in pear and some minor fruit trees which favor warm weather such as persimmon, Japanese apricot, and jujube, the last one in Taegu specialized in apple. NHRI has a substation in Namhae, an island in the south of the peninsula, and its major mandates are on kiwi fruit, yuju research, and seed potato production program. The National Cheju Experiment Station is playing a major role in sub-tropical fruit trees and flowers. The National Alpine Experiment Station at Pyungchang is charged with the mandates in seed potato program and highland vegetables and flowers. Each of the nine provinces has a Provincial Agricultural Research and Extension Services (ARES) which is again in charge of research and extension for agriculture of the provincial region. Each ARES has Economic Crops Division for research work on horticultural crops and some other cash crops. In addition, total of 31 Region Specific Crop Experiment Station belongs to ARESs. Research in NHRI is focused on the nation-wide strategic areas, while that in ARESs is addressed to the regional problems for the immediate application. Progress highlights and major achievements obtained under the umbrella of RDA system are compiled in the Annual Research Reports that are published in two versions separately; Korean and English. Research Reports of RDA are published in nine different Disciplines, one of which is horticulture. In the field of horticulture, the annual report includes 45-50 papers in about 350 pages mostly written in Korean with English abstract, table headings and figure captions.

Education is the responsibility of universities and colleges. Before World War II, Suwon Agricultural Junior College and Sungsil Junior College (Department of Agriculture) were the only institutions for advanced education in the field of agriculture. Presently 34 universities or Colleges and 13 Junior Colleges have departments in horticulture. Most of the 27 universities or colleges offer graduate courses for doctorate and/or master degree in horticulture major. Basic researches are primarily the responsibilities of universities.
The Korean Society for Horticultural Science (KSHS) was established in 1963. The address of KSHS is: Department of Horticulture, Seoul National University, Seodun-dong, Suwon, Kyounggi-do 441-744, Republic of Korea. The KSHS is the largest single society in agricultural area in Korea with 1500 registered members. The KSHS holds 2 regular annual meetings (2-day meeting) per year: one in the spring (usually in late May), and the other in the fall (usually in late October). Approximately 300-400 papers are being presented at each meeting in 4-6 different sections. Prominent horticulturists are being invited for the plenary lectures, mostly from overseas. The KSHS publishes the Journal of the KSHS bimonthly with about 25-30 papers per issue. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology is another important publication of the KSHS, also published bimonthly with short research papers, news, announcement, abstract for the meetings, and various other contents. There are several commodity cooperatives related to horticulture: crucifer, strawberry, pepper, kimchi, protected horticulture, hydroponics, and so on. They usually hold periodical meeting and publish research reports and/or newsletters.

Organisations / Institutes:
Rural Development Administration (RDA)
Kyunggi Provincial Government
Kangwon Provincial Government
Chungbuk Provincial Government
Chungnam Provincial Government
Chunbuk Provincial Government
Chunnam Provincial Government
Kyungbuk Provincial Government
Kyungnam Provincial Government
Cheju Provincial Government
Kangnung National University
Kangwon National University
Kyungbuk National University
Gyeongsang National University
Kongju University
Mokpo National University
Miryang National University
Sangju Nationational University
Seoul National University
Sunchon National University
Andong University
Ansung National University
Chonnam National University
Chonbuk National University
Cheju National University
Chinju National University
Chungnam National University
Chungbuk National University
Konkuk University
Konkuk University - Chungju
Kyung Hee University
Korea University
Dankook University
Taegu University
Catholic University of Taegu Hyosung
Dong-A University
Paichai University
Sangmyung University
Seoul Women's University
Yeungnam University
Wonkwang University
Sahmyook University
Joongbu University
Chungang University
Honam University
Keimyung College
National Agricultural Cooperative Federation (NACF)
Woo Song Information College
Shingu University
Yonam College of Agriculture
Iksan National College
Korea National Agricultural College (RDA)
The University of Seoul


Update data

URL www.hridir.org