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International Society for Horticultural Science

Horticulture Research International

Poland

General info
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Climate
The climate in Poland is very differentiated, being under the influence of both the sea and continental air masses. Summer precipitations prevail over the winter ones with maximum cloud cover occurring, however, during winter. The coldest month is January with average temperatures ranging between -5 °C and -1,5 °C and the warmest is July with average temperatures 17-19 °C. The last ground frosts occur in Poland around May 15 and the first ones may be expected in the second decade of October. Precipitation is insufficient, being 500 mm in central and western Poland to 600-700 mm in the uplands which is much too little for the light and permeable soils prevailing in this country. Therefore climatic conditions are relatively difficult for an open ground production and less favourable for cultivation under cover than for example in countries in Western Europe situated at the same latitude.

Geography
Poland is located in the centre of Europe between the Baltic Sea and the Carpathian Mountains, i.e. 49-54° North latitude and 14-24° East longitude. Most of the country forms part of the Central European Plain, with rather poor podzolic soils consisting of clayey sand and boulder-clay. Hills and many lakes can be found in a section of terminal morain near the seaside. The average altitude is 173 m above sea level. The land rise in the South, forming an upland section with a mixture of various soil, among which frequently occur fertile rendzina, loess and less often chernoziem. In the foothills and mountains, the soil are suitable only for use as pastures, orchards, or forest. The two main rivers, the Oder and Vistula, flow from the south to the north.

Horticulture
All aspects of horticulture can be found in Poland: arboriculture, fruit growing, flower culture, vegetable production under cover and in the open and mushroom production.
Fruit production, mainly apples, sour cherries, strawberries and currants, in Poland is heavily concentrated in some regions. Almost 30% of productions originate from Radom region, that is about 40 kilometers south of the capital Warsaw. The other regions are located in central part of Poland and in Carpathian Highland. Vegetable production in the open, mainly cabbage, onion, carrot, red beet, cucumber and tomato is concentrated in central, south and south-east part of the country. Vegetable production under cover, mainly tomatoes, cucumbers, red peppers and lettuces, is concentrated in central part of Poland. Flower production is concentrated in central part of the country. Staple species are carnations, roses, gerberas, chrysanthemums and others. Arboriculture is in the center and in the south-east part of the country.

Distribution of Horticulture
Fruit production, mainly apples, sour cherries, strawberries and currants, in Poland is heavily concentrated in some regions. Almost 30% of productions originate from Radom region, that is about 40 kilometers south of the capital Warsaw. The other regions are located in central part of Poland and in Carpathian Highland. Vegetable production in the open, mainly cabbage, onion, carrot, red beet, cucumber and tomato is concentrated in central, south and south-east part of the country. Vegetable production under cover, mainly tomatoes, cucumbers, red peppers and lettuces, is concentrated in central part of Poland. Flower production is concentrated in central part of the country. Staple species are carnations, roses, gerberas, chrysanthemums and others. Arboriculture is in the center and in the south-east part of the country.

Research Thrusts
The three major research thrusts are the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Economy, the Ministry of National Education and the Polish Academy of Sciences.

Nature of Institutes
The bulk of agriculture research in Poland is being done at the Institutes under the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Economy. The Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture was organized in 1951 at Skierniewice. The Institute deals with all aspects of pomological and ornamental plants research. The research activities are conducted at the Institute's headquarters in Skierniewice and in seven experiment stations scattered all over the country. The Research Institute of Vegetable Crops was organized in 1964. The Institute deals with all aspects of vegetable research, edible mushrooms included. The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk) is the highest authority as far as science is concerned in Poland. It is responsible for planning all the research work of the country, especially in basic research. In the Department of Agriculture and Forestry of the Polish Academy of Sciences there is a Committee of Horticultural Science. The Committee is responsible for planning and coordinating all horticultural research work in Poland. Research on woody ornamental plants is being conducted also as one of the activities of the Institute of Dendrology of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kórnik. The 9 Agricultural Universities in Poland are subordinated to the Ministry of National Education. A considerable part of horticultural research work is carried out by the horticultural departments of the Agricultural Universities.

Organisations / Institutes:
Ministry of Agriculture and Food Economy
Ministry of National Education
Polish Academy of Sciences


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