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International Society for Horticultural Science

Horticulture Research International

Portugal

General info
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Climate
Portuguese Territory extends only a little over 5º in latitude. Yearly mean temperature increases from 10 ºC, in the north, up to 17.5 ºC, in the south. Winters are mild, except in the north and north-east where snow and hard freezes occur. Summers are, generally, hot (often with temperatures over 40 ºC). Average annual rainfall decreases from 1200 mm in the north-west and mountains to 400 mm in the southern region. Most of the rain occurs in winter; springs and summers are dry. Global radiation receipts are high.

Geography
The north of Portugal, except for a coastal narrow strip and along the main rivers, is rather mountainous. In the south, it is flat with the exception of two small moutains. Most soils are unsuitable for intensive crop production (shallow, stony and ill-structured). An important patch of fertile clay soils exists in the south (Alentejo). The best soils are along the main rivers, which are sandy or sandy-loam of alluvial origin and are often very deep.

Horticulture
Horticulture represents about 50% of the Portuguese agricultural added-value. The most important crops are wine grapes (10,000,000 t), oranges(2,000,000 t), apples (3,000,000 t), pears (1.20 t), cole crops (5,000,000 t), peaches (1,200,000 t), processing tomatoes (7,000,000 t), potatoes (12,000,000 t). Total fruit production is (10,000,000 t) and total vegetal production including potatoes (30,000,000 t). Cut-flowers and pot-plant production in increases areas represent about 600 ha.

The main wine regions are located in the north e.g. Vinho Verde, Douro and Port wine, Dão and Bairrada. Ribatejo and Alentejo in the south are located in the centre-south. Apple growing is dispersed in the centre/north, pears are concentrated in the centre/west, orange in the Algarve, potatoes and cole crops dispersed in the centre/north and processing tomatoes in the Tagus valley and Alentejo. Vegetables for the fresh market are located in the Tagus valley and along the coast north of Lisbon. Greenhouses are located in the Algarve and along the west coast.

Distribution of Horticulture
The main wine regions are located in the north e.g. Vinho Verde, Douro and Port wine, Dão and Bairrada. Ribatejo and Alentejo in the south are located in the centre-south. Apple growing is dispersed in the centre/north, pears are concentrated in the centre/west, orange in the Algarve, potatoes and cole crops dispersed in the centre/north and processing tomatoes in the Tagus valley and Alentejo. Vegetables for the fresh market are located in the Tagus valley and along the coast north of Lisbon. Greenhouses are located in the Algarve and along the west coast.

Research Thrusts
Agriculture research is mainly financed by the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Science and Technology through the Foundation of Science and Technology (FCT). There is no tradition of research financed by private companies or even conducted by private agencies or enterprises.

Nature of Institutes
Horticultural research is conducted by two groups of institutions:
1. Research institutes and research stations under the Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries and the Ministry of Education;
2. Universities and Agricultural Polytechnic Schools under the Ministry of Education.

Organisations / Institutes:
National Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA)
Institute for Tropical Scientific Research (IICT)
Institute for Biological and Experimental Technology (IBET)
College of Agriculture and Forestry - Technical University of Lisboa (ISA)
University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD)
University of Évora
University of the Azores
University of Algarve


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