|International Society for Horticultural Science|
Horticulture Research International
Sudan lies entirely within the tropics, with predominantly continental climate. An exception is the narrow coastal plain and the eastern slope of the Red Sea Hills where maritime characteristics domain. Two main flows of wind can be recognized i.e. northerly and southerly winds. The northerly air masses are extremely dry due to their continental origin and descent from higher altitudes as they move southwards. The southerly humid winds originate in the Indian and Atlantic oceans lost most of their humidity during their long and slow passage over East and Central Africa to Sudan. Nevertheless, they become maritime when they reach the Sudan and cause rainfall in the autumn. The maritime influence of the Mediterranean Sea is sometimes felt in the northern Sudan but that of the Red Sea , though of considerable local importance near the coast, is negligible in land. Climatically Sudan can be divided into three regions. The desert region, north of latitude 19° N, with daily maximum temperature of 24 °C in January and 49.5 °C in June. The rain fall is infrequent due to the prevailing of the dry northerly winds through out the year. The typical tropical continental climate south of latitude 19° N, which is dominated by the movement of the inter-tropical convergence between the dry northerly and moist southerly winds. The rain fall range from less than 100 mm in the desert to 1500 mm in the high rainfall Savannah and mountain rain forests of the subtropics. The third region is the Red Sea Coast and Eastern slopes of the Red Sea Hills where the northerly winds prevail throughout the year but the climate is modified by the maritime influence of the Red Sea. The mean daily Temperature is 27.1 °C in January and 40.9 °C in June. Other regions of specific local climate are Jebel Marra, Eastern and South Eastern Uplands, and the Arid South Eastern Plains of the Sudan.
Sudan is a country of nearly 2,500,000 km2 and is extended between latitude 3°53' N and 21°55' N and longitude 21°54' E and 38° 30' E. Sudan is essentially a vast plain interrupted by few hills or mountains and divided from south to north by the River Nile and its tributaries. Soil of Sudan is dominated by the central clay plain soils; however, sixteen soil regions were identified in this country, including in addition to central clay plain, the southern uplands soils, Jebel Marra, southern clay plain, central Kordofan basin, Nuba upland, Gash and Tokar Delta, alluvial plain complex, ironstone, marshes soils, etc.
Horticultural activities are found through out the country; these include vegetable production, tropical fruit growing, and few aromatic and medicinal plants and ornamentals.
Distribution of Horticulture
Fruit trees cultivation is mainly concentrated in the northern part of the country along the river Nile, the south eastern part of the country along the river Blue Nile, Jebel Marra in the West, Southern Kordufan, and the equatorial states in the south. The majority of vegetable production areas are found in the Irrigated Schemes, Gezira, and Rahad schemes, along the river Nile and its tributaries, and to a lesser degree in the rainfed sector in Western Sudan.
There are two main research thrusts, the Ministry of Agriculture as the major research thrust, and the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.
Nature of Institutes
Horticultural research is mandated in four areas; germplasm enhancement, production practices, socio-economic, and post harvest, and is primarily conducted by two groups.
1. The Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) through its research stations under the Ministry of Agriculture.
2. Departments of Horticulture at Universities, and Institutes of the National Research Council under the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.
Organisations / Institutes:
Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC)
University of Khartoum
University of Gezira